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BIOMETHANE PRODUCTION

thori tanklad

BIOMETHANE IS A 100% ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY RENEWABLE FUEL.

Biomethane is a renewable fuel in gaseous state meeting the quality requirements of natural gas, produced in an oxygen-free environment by fermentation from biodegradable waste, sewage and sludge, agricultural waste and biomass of various origins.

Biomethane is a 100% environmentally friendly renewable fuel, its main component (over 97% just like in natural gas) is methane (CH4).

Biomethane and natural gas can be used in the same way, they can be replaced with each other and can be freely mixed in any proportions. The fundamental difference between biomethane and natural gas lies in their origin: natural gas is fossil-based and biomethane is renewable.
Burning natural gas adds CO₂ to the atmosphere, but burning biomethane does not add CO₂ to the atmosphere, because the CO₂ produced by burning biomethane is sequestered by plants as the biomass grows. 

Biomethane used in transport is compressed to between 200-250 bar, which is why it is called compressed biomethane (CBM) in the petrol industry. When fossil-based natural gas with the same calorific value as biomethane is compressed to between 200-220 bar, it is called compressed natural gas (CNG). CNG filling stations in Estonia generally sell only CNG or a mixture of CNG and CBM.

The biomethane used in Thori Tanklad OÜ is not dependent on the global natural gas pipeline so our product is 100% local and renewable compressed biomethane.
 
Today, all biomethane produced in Estonia is used as renewable fuel for transport which contributes to the EU's commitment under the EU Renewable Energy Directive (RED II) to reach 14% of transport fuels from renewable sources by 2030. 

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Compared to the combustion of petrol and diesel, methane gas (referring to both natural gas and biomethane as methane gas, as they have the same chemical composition, calorific value and combustion properties) has a lower total calculated emission - no carbon black particles are emitted and sulphur dioxide quantities are negligible.

Compared to petrol, methane gas combustion produces as much as 60% less carbon oxide, 50% less hydrocarbons and 45% less nitrogen oxides.

FROM WASTE TO FUEL.

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PRODUCTION PROCCESS.

Biomethane is a renewable fuel in gaseous state (methane CH4 content >97%), meeting the quality requirements of natural gas and is produced by biogas purification and CO₂ separation from biogas. 

Biogas is produced from biodegradable wastes, sewage and sewage sludge, agricultural wastes and biomass of various origins. The by-product of biogas production is the digestate (bioon), which is in both liquid and solid form and contains the same nutrients as manure, i.e. organic, natural fertiliser. Therefore, the raw material is waste and the output is biogas and natural fertiliser and no extra waste is produced in the process. If this is not circular economy, then what is?

BIOGAS

Biogas is a gaseous fuel produced by anaerobic digestion, consisting of 50-70% methane (CH4), 30-40% carbon dioxide (CO₂) and other components such as N₂, O₂, NH4, H2S. Biogas can be produced naturally from bogs, swamps and landfills, and using special digesters, also from manure, sewage, herbaceous biomass and other biodegradable wastes.


Biogas is "produced" by the same bacteria that break down plant matter in the stomach of a cow. Therefore, the  digester is  imitating cow's milk conditions: the temperature has to be between 37 and 40°C, there is no oxygen and the raw material circulates. The calorific value of the biogas obtained is usually between 5 and 7 kWh/m3, depending on the methane content of the biogas, which in turn depends on the nutrient content of the raw material, the humidity content and on the type of waste used. In Estonia, biogas is produced for heat and/or electricity.

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BIOMETHANE

Biomethane, on the other hand, is purified biogas that contains 96-99% methane and has the same calorific value as natural gas, being usable everywhere where natural gas is used today. Biogas is purified by water scrubbing, amine scrubbing, pressure swing adsorption (PSA) or membrane upgrading technologies, which removes carbon dioxide and other compounds from the biogas, so that the resulting biomethane meets the quality requirements of natural gas.

The biomethane can then be freely injected and blended with natural gas in the natural gas pipeline, and in transportation all  vehicles can use compressed natural gas or compressed biomethane in CNG/CBM refuelling stations. 

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